For the long period before the democratic reform in 1959, Tibet, where the religiopolitical dictatorship by monastries and aristocrats were practiced, had remained long in darkness and its feudal serfdom system was even harsher than that of Europe in the middle ages. The local administrative officials, aristocrats and upper-ranking lamas in the monasteries, the so-called “three major estate-holders”, which accounted for less than 5 percent of the total population, controlled the majority of means of production and personal freedom of the serfs and slaves, who took up over 95 percent of the total population. The Thirteen Codes and The Sixteen Codes, which had been upheld in the old Tibet for several hundreds of years, divided people into three classes and nine grades, and stated that different class or grade of people has different legal status. The right to subsistence of all the serfs and slaves could not even guaranteed when old Tibet applied some inhuman barbaric punishments such as cutting off feet, hands, tongues or ears, gouging out eyes, pulling out tendons, drowning, pushing the condemned person down from cliff, ect. to ruthlessly exploit them economically and politically and spiritually control them, not to mention their political rights.