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blog名称:tiantangniao928
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汉英翻译能力的培养
天堂鸟928 发表于 2008-1-25 16:44:00

汉英翻译能力的培养



要做一名合格的翻译,首先应打好汉语和英语的基本功,还要学习和研究中外不同的文化,同时还要再学一门专业知识。既然汉英翻译是如此艰巨复杂的任务,那么我们怎样才能有效地对学生进行训练,以提高他们的汉英翻译能力和水平呢?
汉英翻译能力的培养(translation competence development)涉及以下诸多方面:
.要培养对英语的语感和悟性(language intuition – open and alert mind to pick up idioms, specific expressions, etc.);
.要培养对英语的判断能力和鉴赏能力(evaluation capacity – judgment);
.要培养对英语的洞察能力和剖析能力(power of observation – insight);
.要培养对英语细微特征的反应能力(linguistic nuances alertness); -
.要培养对社会文化和跨文化交流的敏感性(social-cultural sensitivity – cross-cultural awareness);
.要培养对英语和汉语之间差别的意识 (sense of differences between Chinese and English)
.要培养对英语和汉语之间的辩证关系的认识 (awareness of the dialectic relationship between Chinese and English)
.要培养对英语洋为中用的意识 (“use things foreign to serve Chinese purposes”)
.要培养对英语学以致用的意识 (apply what you have learned in your translation)
.要培养对翻译的多层次、多角度的立体思维方式 (a multi-tier approach )
十一.一名称职的翻译工作者必须懂得什么是翻译的真谛(a clear conception of what translation is)
十二.一名优秀的翻译人员必须具有高屋建瓴的视角 (great powers of conception)
上述各种能力和意识的培养,可以通过不同的具体途径来实现。我通常是采取下毛毛雨的办法,让学生在诸多方面加强翻译意识的锻炼:
第一:要对翻译的重要性有深刻的、充分的认识,翻译的对与错、好与坏有时会产生绝然不同的效果。例如,把海南岛的天涯海角翻译成了世界末日 the End of the World (应为Land’s End / End of the Earth) 。再如某航空公司的广告中承诺的一小时内免费送机票上门变成了一小时内送免费机票上门We give you tickets free of charge within one hour.(应为We offer free delivery of your air tickets within one hour after your booking confirmation.
第二:要善于仔细地、深入地、准确地理解中文原文的意思。这是因为准确的理解是做好翻译的前提。例如,我们常用摸着石头过河这个俗语来形容我国的改革开放事业是没有先例。那么摸着石头过河应如何翻译成英语呢?有的人把它按字面翻译为crossing the river by feeling the stones。翻译的人根本就没有去认真地理解摸着石头过河是什么意思,应该怎样表达才能让外国人能够理解。正确的做法应该是按照下面的步骤去做:
•“
摸着石头过河的字面意思如何理解?
它有什么暗含或延伸的意思?
英语里有没有相同或类似的说法?.如果有,就可以直接借用;如果没有,是进行直译还是意译?
如果直译为 crossing the river by feeling the stones是否能被外国人理解?
过河是乘船过(crossing by boat)还是淌水过(wading across),动词用什么形式?
这里的河是大河、中河还是小河 (river, stream, brook, etc.)
摸的方式是用手摸还是用脚触?
石头是大石头还是小石头(rock, stone, pebble, etc.)
如果意译为 learning by experiment / by trial and error是否可取?
直译和意译相结合wading across the stream by feeling the way如何?
Since there is no previous experience to fall back on, we have to “wade across the stream by feeling the way,” as we say in Chinese.
第三:中文和英文的对应词有时意思并不相同或者不完全相同,不能照字面翻译。例如下面例子中的外国人foreigner: 如果我们要把他的英语说得真好,就像外国人一样。翻译成这样的英语He speaks English so well, he sounds like a foreigner.那么这里的修饰语like a foreigner 是指说得不好,听起来很别扭。这种看上去非常准确的翻译其效果却适得其反。正确的翻译方法应该是:He speaks English so well, he sounds like a native speaker.
拉动经济增长不能翻译为pull economic growth,这不符合英语的表达习惯,而要用下列动词才能与economic growth相匹配:push/lift/increase/boost/stimulate/
spur/drive/fuel/speed up/accelerate/generate/ fire up/ propel/ facilitate/reinforce/
aid/assist/support/promote/encourage/foster/(sustain/maintain)

我们也不能把素质教育翻译成quality education,那是指高质量的教育。正确的翻译应该是caliber-focused education trait-centered education
第四:有时候中文字面的意思表达不充分,部分信息被省略了或被隐藏起来了。例如下面的例子:特区是个窗口,是技术的窗口,管理的窗口,知识的窗口,也是对外政策的窗口。有人把它翻译为:The special zone is a window. It is a widow for introducing technology, management and knowledge. It is also a window for foreign policy.
这样的翻译外国人是无法理解的,我们必须把那些被省略了或被隐藏起来的信息都翻译出来:The special economic zones are a window opening onto the outside world. They are a window through which to bring in from abroad sophisticated technology, advanced managerial expertise and up-to-date know-how. It is also a window through which to disseminate China’s external policies.
与此相似的例子还有很多,如退耕还林不是return farmland to forest(把耕地退还给森林),而应该是restore “woodland-converted farm-plots” back for afforesting (把从林地开垦出来的耕地还原成林地,即重新进行植树造林)春运也不能简单地说成是spring transportation(春季的运输) 而是the rush / peak season of passenger transportation during the Spring Festival(春节期间的客运高峰)
第五:有些中文词语没有什么特殊涵义,而与之相对应的英文词语却有着特殊的涵义。例如,与便宜价廉相对应的“cheap,”它有时候会带有贬义,成为质次价低的意,如cheap jewelries, cheap dresses, cheap furniture 等。我们可以说I bought a cheap watch for my child,对小孩无所谓;但不能说I bought a cheap dress for my girlfriend. 因为这样说会冒犯对方。在后一种情况下必须用inexpensive一词。
第六:避免用中式英语进行表达,而要尽量用地道的英语进行表达。假如我们要把我过去学过一些法语,但现在都忘了,都还给老师了这句话翻译成英语,最好不要说 I learned some French in the past. Now I have forgotten it. I’ve returned it to the teacher. 比较好的说法是 I used to know some French, but I’ve forgotten it. It has found its way back to my teacher.
再比如我们要用英语说我攒了一大堆赃衣服,等着周末来洗,最好不要说I have accumulated a large amount of dirty clothes. I’m going to wash them at the weekend. 比较好的说法是 I have a lot of laundry to catch up at the weekend.
第七:根据不同场合,英语的表达有庄重(formal) 与随意(informal) 之分。比如禁止吸烟No Smoking)、请勿吸烟”(Thank you for not smoking) 为了您和他人的健康,请勿在此吸烟For hygiene’s sake, please refrain yourself from smoking in this room.)下面两组例子中都各包含有formal- normal - informal 三种文体风格(style):
Please await instructions before dispatching items.
Please wait for instructions before sending items off.
Don’t send anything off until you’re told to do so.
Essential measures should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity.
One should undertake any necessary measures at the earliest opportunity.
You should do whatever you have to as soon as you can.
第八:要注意各行各业的不同术语的选择。比如我们要把专业签证人员翻译成英语,那么我们就要按照外交用语的习惯把它翻译为visa officers,而不应该照字面上翻译成specialized visa personnel安居工程的英译不是housing project for low-income urban residents,而应该按照社会经济用语的习惯翻译为the Affordable Housing Program; “信息化的英译不是informatization informationization,而应该按照高科技行业习惯翻译为the spreading / sweeping information explosion / the information explosion process / trend; “外资企业的英译不是overseas-funded enterprises,而应该按照外贸行业习惯翻译为enterprises with foreign investment / enterprises with foreign elements;再比如,高速公路上的警示语请勿疲劳驾驶,翻译成英语不是Don’t drive tiredly,按照交通法规术语应该翻译为Drowsy driving is dangerous Drive alert, arrive alive
第九:注意汉语和英语之间的文化差异。把相声翻译成英语不能只是翻译其形式,还要翻译其内涵。翻译成cross talk 外国人不明白;不如翻译为comic dialogue 更好懂。再如,假设我们要把以外贸为龙头翻译成英语,能不能直接翻译为with foreign trade as the dragon head呢?这样翻译是很难让外国人明白的,因为……

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